The book of Second Samuel records the rise, fall and finish of a great man of God. We can learn so much from him as we look into the Scriptures.
The Abrahamic Covenant
[Genesis. 12:1-3; 13:14-17; 15:1-21; 17:1-8; 22:14-18]
I. This covenant marks the beginning of the Hebrew nation.
A. It is still the basis for all the hopes of Israel concerning their possession of the land of Palestine.
B. The plain language of this covenant should not be transmuted into concepts that Abraham would not have understood: i.e., the church!
II. God chose Israel for a threefold purpose:
A. To keep the knowledge of the true God alive in the world.
B. To bring forth the messiah.
C. To produce a written revelation for mankind.
III. The provisions of the Abrahamic Covenant (these are summarized in Peters, I, 293-294).
A. Those in Genesis. 12:1-3.
1. God will make a great nation of Abraham (v. 2).
2. God will deal with men in blessing or cursing as they deal with Abraham (v. 3).
3. In Abraham all families of the earth will be blessed (v. 3).
a) God intended to justify the heathen as well as Abraham by faith (Gal. 3:8).
b) Those who believe are the spiritual children of Abraham (Gal. 3:7).
c) This should not be interpreted as though it is fulfilled completely by the New Testament church and physical Israel is cast away (Rom. 11:1-2).
d) God will yet fulfill this to physical Israel (Rom. 11:25-26).
B. Those in Genesis. 13:14-17
1. God will give all the land of Palestine to Abraham and to his seed forever (vs. 14-15).
2. God will make the seed of Abraham as the dust of the earth for number (v. 16).
C. Those in Genesis. 15:1-21.
1. God will grant Abraham a son and posterity as the stars of heaven in number (vs. 4-5).
2. God will give to Abraham’s seed the land from the riverof Egypt to the Euphrates (v. 18).
3. Abraham believed the word God gave him, and it was counted to him for righteousness (v. 6).
4. God cut a unilateral covenant with Abraham and gave him a prophetic history of his seed for four Generations (vs. 9-17).
D. Those in Genesis. 17:1-8.
1. God will make Abraham a father of many nations (vs. 4-5).
a) He was Abram: “father of exaltation.”
b) He became Abraham: “father of a multitude.”
c) The New Testament applies this to us today (Rom. 4:11, 16-17).
2. God will multiply Abraham so that nations and kings will come from him (v. 6).
a) Here is the first clear reference that God is establishing a kingdom.
b) This contradicts the idea that kings were an after thought in God’s plan.
3. God will establish an everlasting covenant with Abraham and with his seed after him, to be a God to him and to his seed (v. 7).
4. God will give to Abraham and to his seed after him all the land of Canaan for an everlasting possession (v. 8).
E. The eternal nature of this covenant hardly could be stressed more.
F. It is clear that God is establishing this covenant, and Abraham can only accept it.
IV. The interpretation of the Abrahamic covenant.
A. Practically, this is an unconditional covenant.
1. There are stipulations to Abraham, but he fulfilled them (Genesis 12:1; 17:1,10; 22:16).
2. Faith is presupposed, but Abraham exercized that (Genesis. 15:6).
3. Faith is also assured to Israel in the last day (Zech. 12:10-11).
4. The prophets later confirm that Israel will continue forever (Jer. 31:36-37).
5. Even if God punishes Israel for sin, He will not set aside the covenant (Lev. 26:44).
B. The New Testament confirms that the covenant remains for physical Israel (Rom. 11:1-2, 25-26).
1. We must distinguish three seeds of Abraham:
a) The natural, physical seed: the Hebrew people.
b) The spiritual seed: true believers.
(1) Gentile believers are included in this seed (Rom. 4:16-17).
(2) Gentile believers are also under the promise (Gal. 3:8-9).
c) The ultimate seed: Christ (Gal. 3:16).
C. This covenant is never forced on any person, whether he has faith or not.
1. The Old Testament Israelite had to believe God’s Word and be saved in order to participate in the blessings of the covenant (Gal. 3:6-9).
2. Today we also must believe God’s Word (Rom. 4:5), and we also participate in the promise (Gal. 3:29).
3. We will find that both Israelite and Genesistile believers will be in the Kingdom together (Matt. 8:11).
4. Israel in the last day will have faith and will be saved (Zech. 12:10; 13:1; 14:21).
D. This covenant was reaffirmed to Isaac and Jacob later (Genesis. 26:3-4; 28:13-14; 35:9-12).
V. The fulfillment of the Abrahamic covenant.
A. It was partially fulfilled in the days of David and Solomon.
1. Has Israel ever possessed the land promised by this covenant? No.
2. In the time of Solomon it was put under tribute but not possessed (1 Kings 4:21).
3. They certainly did not have it for an everlasting possession.
B. The fulfillment will come through Christ.
1. His first coming began the fulfillment (Luke 1:68-74;Gal. 3:16).
2. It will be fulfilled exhaustively at His second coming (Zech. 14:4-9).
C. The covenant still awaits fulfillment (Heb. 11:39-40).
1. It includes the gift of the Holy Spirit (Acts 2:38-39; Gal. 3:14).
2. To spiritualize these promises and to make them apply only to the church is to do violence to the literal terms of the covenant.
For more material see: Peters, I, 293-311; Pentecost: Things toCome, pp. 65-94.
The Palestinian Covenant
I. This covenant reassures Israel of their possession of the land.
A. Sin and disobedience will bring captivity (Deut. 28:36-37).
B. Continued disobedience will bring worldwide dispersion (Deut. 28:63-68).
1. This was fulfilled in the time of Titus.
2. See Josephus: Wars of the Jews, Book 6, Chapter 9.
C. But Israel will be regathered (Deut. 30:3-4).
D. They will be finally converted (Deut. 30:6).
E. Israel will prosper; their enemies will be cursed (Deut. 30:7-9).
F. This will not be done without faith on the part of Israel, but God states that they will have faith (Deut. 30:6-8).
The Davidic Covenant
2 Samuel 7:10-16
I. The Davidic Covenant forms the basis for the bulk of the kingdom promises from this time on.
A. This covenant does not replace the Mosaic or Abrahamic Covenants.
B. It is a further amplification of God’s covenant relation with His people.
C. The seed of the woman, the seed of Abraham, is also the seed of David, a royal heir to an eternal throne.
II. The provisions of the Davidic Covenant.
A. God gives a Divine Confirmation that His Throne is in Israel. He will appoint a place for His people Israel; they shall move no more (v. 10).
B. Sinners shall not afflict them anymore (v. 10).
C. God will build David an eternal house: posterity, physical descendants (vs. 11, 16).
D. God will establish and predicted the perpetuity of the Davidic Dynasty. He established David’s kingdom forever: the political kingdom such as David then ruled (v. 16).
E. God will establish David’s throne forever: the right to rule would never be removed (v. 16). (This does not imply that one actually had to be ruling all the time.)
F. David’s son (Solomon, then unborn) will build a temple (v. 13).
III. The Messianic Implications of this Covenant are exciting.
A. It is unconditional because it involves Christ.
B. This marks the fourth level of development of the promised Messiah.
1. Adam Level #1 Genesis 3:15 And I will put enmity Between you and the woman, And between your seed and her Seed; He shall bruise your head, And you shall bruise His heel.” (NKJV)
2. Abraham Level #2 Genesis 22:18 “In your seed all the nations of the earth shall be blessed, because you have obeyed My voice.” (NKJV)
3. Jacob Level #3 A TRIBE Genesis 49:10 The scepter shall not depart from Judah, Nor a lawgiver from between his feet, Until Shiloh comes; And to Him shall be the obedience of the people. (NKJV)
4. David Level #4 A FAMILY 2 Samuel 7:10-16 10″Moreover I will appoint a place for My people Israel, and will plant them, that they may dwell in a place of their own and move no more; nor shall the sons of wickedness oppress them anymore, as previously, 11″since the time that I commanded judges to be over My people Israel, and have caused you to rest from all your enemies. Also the LORD tells you that He will make you a house.
When your days are fulfilled and you rest with your fathers, I will set up your seed after you, who will come from your body, and I will establish his kingdom. 13 “He shall build a house for My name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. 14 “I will be his Father, and he shall be My son. If he commits iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men and with the blows of the sons of men. 15 “But My mercy shall not depart from him, as I took it from Saul, whom I removed from before you. 16 “And your house and your kingdom shall be established forever before you. Your throne shall be established forever.” ‘ ” (NKJV)
5. Isaiah Level #5 A VIRGIN/INDIVIDUAL Isaiah 7:14“Therefore the Lord Himself will give you a sign: Behold, the virgin shall conceive and bear a Son, and shall call His name Immanuel. (NKJV)
IV. This connects together the Kingdom of God and the kingdom of Davidforever.
A. The angel announced to Mary that Jesus would take the throne of his father David forever (Luke 1:31-33).
B. Peter proclaimed that this covenant was to be fulfilled in Christ (Acts 2:30).
C. But is this fulfilled by:
a) The present session of Christ in heaven? or
b) His reign over the earth in the MillennialKingdom?
D. These are a few reasons for a belief in a rule over a literal, earthly kingdom (See Peters: Theocratic Kingdom, I, p. 343 for more).
1. It is solemnly covenanted, confirmed by oath, and cannot be altered or broken.
2. The grammatical sense alone is becoming a covenant.
3. The impression made on David, if erroneous, is disparaging to his prophetic office.
4. The conviction of Solomon was that it referred to the literal throne and kingdom (2 Chronicles. 6:14-16).
5. The language is that ordinarily used to denote the literal kingdom of David.
6. The prophets adopt the Samuele language, and its constant reiteration under divine guidance is evidence that the plain grammatical sense is the one intended.
7. The prevailing belief of centuries, a national faith, enGenesisdered by the language, under the teaching of inspired men, indicates how the language is to be understood.
8. This throne and kingdom is one of promise and inheritance., and hence refers to the humanity of Jesus.
9. The Samuele is promised to David’s son “according to the flesh” to be actually realized; and therefore, He must appear the Theocratic King as promised.
10. We have not the slightest hint given that it is to be interpreted in any other way than a literal one; any other is pure inference.
11. The denial of a literal reception of the covenant robs the heir of his covenanted inheritance.
12. No grammatical rule can be laid down which will make David’s throne to be the Father’s throne in the third heaven.
13. If the latter is attempted as a symbolical interpretation, then the meaning of the covenants is left to the interpretations of men, and David becomes a “symbol” of the Creator!
14. If David’s throne is the Father’s throne in heaven, it must have existed forever.
15. If such covenanted promises are to be received figuratively, it is inconceivable that they should be given in their present form without some direct affirmation in some place of their figurative nature.
16. God is faithful in His promises and deceives no one in the language of His covenants.
17. No necessity existed. Why, if this throne promised to David’s son meant something else, the throne should be so definitely promised in the form given.
18. Such a throne and kingdom are necessary to preserve the divine unity of purpose in the already proposed theocratic line.
V. It is certainly inconsistent to say that the kingdom is spiritual and yet make part of the fulfillment literal to Solomon; or to make the person of the Son of David literal and His throne spiritual.
VI. The unconditional and everlasting nature of the covenant is shown by: Ps. 89:3-4, 20-37; Is. 55:3; Jer. 33:17-22.
A. An individual king in the Davidic line may be punished for sin.
B. But the Davidic line will never lose royal authority.
VII. The fulfillment of the Davidic Covenant should include the following:
A. Israel must be preserved as a nation.
B. Israel as a nation must be brought back to the land of her inheritance.
C. David’s Son, the Lord Jesus Chrust, must return to earth, bodily and literally, to reign over David’s kingdom.
D. A literal earthly Kingdom must be established over which Messiah rules.
E. This Kingdom must become an eternal Kingdom.
VIII. For more material on this covenant, see: Pentecost: Things to Come, pp. 100-115; Ottman: God’s Oath.
The New Covenant
I. In Jeremiah 31:31-37
A. God will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and Judah (v. 31).
1. This should not be turned around to read the church to the exclusion of Jews.
2. New Testament believers are included in this, but not so that Israel is shut out.
B. God will write His law in their hearts, not as at Mount Sinai (vs. 32-33).
C. There will be no need of witnessing for all will know the Lord (v. 34).
D. Jehovah will forgive their iniquity (v. 34).
E. Israel will never cease from being a nation before the Lord (vs. 35-37).
1. Israel’s place is as sure as the ordinances of the sun, moon, and stars (v. 35).
2. Israel will not be cast away because of their sins (v. 37).
II. In Jeremiah 32:37-41
A. God will regather Israel from all countries where they have been driven (v. 37).
B. Israel will again be God’s people (v. 38).
C. God will give them one heart that they may fear Him (v. 39).
D. God will make an everlasting covenant with them to put His fear in their hearts, that they shall not depart from Him (v. 40).
E. God will plant them in the land of Palestine again (v. 41).
F. This covenant was ratified at the cross and is now in effect (Heb. 8:6-13).
G. Christians participate in it, but it must be fulfilled to believing Israel in the last days.
David Serving: A Man After God’s Own Heart
II Samuel 1-10
A. Honors God’s Servants [1:14]
B. Expresses God’s Forgiving Love [1:17-27]
C. Keeps in touch with God [2:1]
D. Portrays Genuine Grief [3:33-39]
E. Gives God the Glory [5:12]
F. Prays to God [7:18-29]
1. David is humble [7:18-19]
2. God is great in His:
a) Character [7:22]
b) Acts [7:23]
c) Purposes [7:24]
d) Promises [7:25]
David Sinning: The Giant That Killed David
II Samuel 11-12
I. David’s Sin and its origin
A. Step One is Neglected Obedience desensitized him [5:13] SeeDt. 17:14-17.
B. Step Two is Neglected Self-Discipline weakened him [11:1]
C. Step Three is Neglected Self-Denial wavered him [11:2-3]
D. Step Four is Neglected Fear of God ruined him [11:4-5]
E. Step Five is Neglected Conviction buried him [11:6]
F. Step Six is Neglected Repentance hardened him [11:22-27]
G. Step Seven is NOT NEGLECTING CORRECTION [II Sam 12:1-25]
1. Confession by the sinner v. 13a
2. Cleansing by the Savior v. 13b
3. Claiming No Excuses [see I Sam 15:21]
II. David’s suffering and its sources
A. Incest of Amnon [13:1-20]
B. Absolom’s revenge on Amnon [13:21-36]
C. Absolom’s flight and Exile [13:37-39]
D. Absolom’s Conspiracy [15:1-12]
E. David flees for his life [15:13-16:14]
F. Absolom’s death [18:9-33]
David Suffering: Facing Personal Disasters God’s Way
II Samuel 13-17
David portrays a life entrusted to God’s care. He gives each care to the Lord. Watch him as he:
1. Entrusts his personal support group to the Lord. Second Samuel 15:21 And Ittai answered the king, and said, [As] the LORD liveth, and [as] my lord the king liveth, surely in what place my lord the king shall be, whether in death or life, even there also will thy servant be. (KJV)
2. Entrusts his personal safety to the Lord. Second Samuel 15:25 And the king said unto Zadok, Carry back the ark of God into the city: if I shall find favour in the eyes of the LORD, he will bring me again, and shew me [both] it, and his habitation: (KJV)
3. Entrusts his personal circumstances to the Lord. Second Samuel 15:31 And [one] told David, saying, Ahithophel
among the conspirators with Absalom. And David said, O LORD, I pray thee, turn the counsel of Ahithophel into foolishness. (KJV)
4. Entrusts his personal adversaries to the Lord. Second Samuel 16:9-10Then said Abishai the son of Zeruiah unto the king, Why should this dead dog curse my lord the king? let me go over, I pray thee, and take off his head. 10 And the king said, What have I to do with you, ye sons of Zeruiah? so let him curse, because the LORD hath said unto him, Curse David. Who shall then say, Wherefore hast thou done so? (KJV)
5. Entrusts his personal sufferings to the Lord. Second Samuel 16:12 It may be that the LORD will look on mine affliction, and that the LORD will requite me good for his cursing this day. (KJV)
6. Entrusts his personal vengeance to the Lord. Second Samuel 17:14And Absalom and all the men of Israel said, The counsel of Hushai the Archite [is] better than the counsel of Ahithophel. For the LORD had appointed to defeat the good counsel of Ahithophel, to the intent that the LORD might bring evil upon Absalom. (KJV)
7. Entrusts his personal needs to the Lord. Second Samuel 17:27-29 And it came to pass, when David was come to Mahanaim, that Shobi the son of Nahash of Rabbah of the children of Ammon, and Machir the son of Ammiel of Lodebar, and Barzillai the Gileadite of Rogelim, 28 Brought beds, and basons, and earthen vessels, and wheat, and barley, and flour, and parched [corn], and beans, and lentiles, and parched
, 29 And honey, and butter, and sheep, and cheese of kine, for David, and for the people that [were] with him, to eat: for they said, The people [is] hungry, and weary, and thirsty, in the wilderness. (KJV)
David Singing: David’s Last Song
II Samuel 23
I. He had a right view of God’s Salvation 2 Samuel 23:1 Now these are the last words of David. Thus says David the son of Jesse; Thus says the man raised up on high, The anointed of the God of Jacob, And the sweet psalmist of Israel: (NKJV)
A. Raised Romans 6:5-6 5 For if we have been united together in the likeness of His death, certainly we also shall be in the likeness of His resurrection, 6 knowing this, that our old man was crucified with Him, that the body of sin might be done away with, that we should no longer be slaves of sin. (NKJV)
B. Seated on High Ephesians 2:6 6 and raised us up together, and made us sit together in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus, (NKJV)
C. Annointed 2 Corinthians 1:21-22 21 Now He who establishes us with you in Christ and has anointed us is God, 22 who also has sealed us and given us the Spirit in our hearts as a guarantee. (NKJV)
II. He had a right view of God’s Security 2 Samuel 23:2-4 2 “The Spirit of the LORD spoke by me, And His word was on my tongue. 3 The God of Israel said, The Rock of Israel spoke to me: ‘He who rules over men must be just, Ruling in the fear of God. 4 And he shall be like the light of the morning when the sun rises, A morning without clouds, Like the tender grass springing out of the earth, By clear shining after rain.’ (NKJV)
A. Secure hope v.4a
B. Secure joy v. 4b
C. Secure fruit v. 4c
D. Secure refreshment v. 4d
III. He had a right view of God’s Saints 2 Samuel 23:5 5 “Although my house is not so with God, Yet He has made with me an everlasting covenant, Ordered in all things and secure. For this is all my salvation and all my desire; Will He not make it increase? (NKJV)
A. It gets better and better!
Lessons from the Life of David
I. God is the Author of Prosperity and Protection.1 Chronicles 29:12 Both riches and honor come from You, And You reign over all. In Your hand is power and might; In Your hand it is to make great And to give strength to all. (NKJV)
II. God warns no one is beyond the reach of Temptation. 1 Corinthians 10:12-13 Therefore let him who thinks he stands take heed lest he fall. No temptation has overtaken you except such as is common to man; but God is faithful, who will not allow you to be tempted beyond what you are able, but with the temptation will also make the way of escape, that you may be able to bear it. (NKJV)
III. God knows Family Life is a real challenge for all. Genesis 18:19 “For I have known him, in order that he may command his children and his household after him, that they keep the way of the LORD, to do righteousness and justice, that the LORD may bring to Abraham what He has spoken to him.” (NKJV)
IV. God waits to restore us when we fall [Psalm 51]