050424AM WN-13 Final Seige Of Jerusalem Jerusalem
The Final Siege of Jerusalem
If you read and listen to the news with a Biblical mind, you can often hear a faint whisper of some of the truths God’s Word faintly in the background. Think about the implications of this summary I read this week:
Humans can live 40 days without food,
3 days without water,
8 minutes without air,
But only 1 second without hope!
What brings hopelessness to life? Most adults in the world, no matter where they live, face the same issues–job insecurity, health uncertainty, financial distresses, future fears, relational woes, and general struggles that accompany normal, daily life in our world. Those wear on our hopes for the future.
But beyond those normal struggles, lurking all around us are deadly diseases, incurable killer viruses, and lethal pathogens that if released and unrestrained could devastate all human life in this world. The avian “bird flu” is a current example. Those shake our hopes for the future.
But even more ominously in the background are the current possibilities of terrorists, dirty bombs, and even more horrible–atomic weapons being unleashed again on this planet after 60 years of silence. Weapons of mass destruction if properly understood will delete strong hopes for a future.
Because of these three layers of problems, more and more people around the world are coming to the point of hopelessness—and end their lives. Japan is seeing more and more suicides, Germany is struggling with what was reported this week as a nationwide epidemic by the BBC of London’s headline: “Germany‘s new ‘great depression’ ”
Record numbers of Germans are suffering from depression and other mental illnesses, a new report says. Up to 70% of Germans also say they are prepared to seek professional help for psychological problems.
But the horrible reality is—the WORST is yet to come! That is where we head this evening in Matthew 24. Please turn there with me as Jesus now turns from the snap shot we saw last time in Matthew 24:15-20. Do you remember them? Those verses show us that Christ sees at His Return—the Jews back in their land (after 2500 years without any nation called Israel), with a Temple in Jerusalem (after 2000 years without a Temple), and offering animal sacrifices (after 2500 years without any animal sacrifices).
Now look on at Matthew 24:21-22 as He introduces a new topic. Jesus sees at His Return a time when mankind is finally possessing the capability of total annihilation of life on planet earth.
Matthew 24:21-22 For then there will be great tribulation, such as has not been since the beginning of the world until this time, no, nor ever shall be. 22 And unless those days were shortened, no flesh would be saved; but for the elect’s sake those days will be shortened.
I describe this snapshot as:
When Christ Returns to Earth,
there are Weapons of Mass Destruction.
We all have started saying those words these days—weapons of mass destruction.
We often have no idea how sobering that concept should be.
God says that at the end of the world–mankind would be capable of destroying all human life.
That is what WMDs means—the capability of destroying human life on earth.
Consider that when Jesus made this prediction the armaments of His day were swords and spears. There was no possible way that anyone on the planet could have enough swords and bows and arrows and soldiers and time—to kill a fourth, a third, a half, and NEVER all human life.
Today we have tens of thousands of atomic weapons stored, deployed, and coiled ready to strike all across this world. Each of these devices would immediately incinerate any human life close enough to be in range of their fearsome destructive power. Or afterward, slowly destroy other lives with lingering radiation and death.
In these two verses Jesus fast forwards us to the end.
The end it is far worse than we often realize. Tonight we need to see where Christ’s words come from. You see, Jesus actually is quoting from Isaiah and Daniel in this Matthew 24 sermon.
To feel the horrors of what He is saying about the world He returns to at His Second Coming, listen first to Daniel 12:1.
Daniel 12:1 “At that time Michael, the great prince who protects your people [Jews], will arise. There will be a time of distress such as has not happened from the beginning of nations until then [the worst time in history]. But at that time your people—everyone whose name is found written in the book—will be delivered.
So, the last half of the tribulation is the worst time in history. The tribulation for seven years is from Daniel 9:24-27 which tells us God has one week of years, or seven years left for finishing up His plan for Israel.
Now turn back a few pages to Isaiah 24. This is what Isaiah foresaw, Jesus affirms, and which should send shivers through our collective hearts as we think of neighbors and friends without Christ’s love and hope, cleansing and forgiveness.
“Behold, the Lord lays the earth waste, devastates it, distorts its surface and scatters its inhabitants … The earth is also polluted by its inhabitants, for they transgressed laws, violated statutes, broke the everlasting covenant. Therefore, a curse devours the earth, and those who live in it are held guilty. Therefore, THE INHABITANTS OF THE EARTH ARE BURNED, AND FEW MEN ARE LEFT.” (Isaiah 24:1, 5-6 NAS)
“Behold, THE DAY OF THE LORD is coming, Cruel, with fury and burning anger, to make the land a desolation; And He will exterminate its sinners from it. For the stars of heaven and their constellations will not flash forth their light; the sun will be dark when it rises and the moon will not shed its light. Thus I will punish the world for its evil and the wicked for their iniquity; I will also put an end to the arrogance of the proud and abase the haughtiness of the ruthless. I WILL MAKE MORTAL MAN SCARCER THAN PURE GOLD AND MANKIND THAN THE GOLD OF OPHIR.” (Isaiah 13:9-12 NAS)
In each of these Old Testament passages the final judgment at Christ’s Return is being described. Each describes the very worst time in the history of the planet. The key point of the last two prophecies in Isaiah is that the survivors of the Tribulation will be FEW. The description of the cause of death in this time period is primarily “devouring fire” that ravages both the earth and the people on the earth. This is a clear way to describe the effects of atomic warfare.
Now go with me to the present, let me read to you from the news outlets of the world, as they warn of the perilous times we live in.
For over 50 year, during what we now call the Cold War—neither of the super powers ever thought that a nuclear exchange was winnable. They knew that unleashing the fires of hell as they were thought of would poison and destroy life for everyone on the planet. History even has recorded that the scientists who developed the Soviet weapons of mass destruction were willing to go into permanent exile in Siberia rather than develop any more fearsome weapons.
Listen to one historian General Ion Mihai Pacepa is the highest-ranking intelligence officer ever to have defected from the former Soviet bloc. He writes this summary in the Washington Times 10/2/03:
It is worth remembering that Andrei Sakharov, the father of the Soviet hydrogen bomb, chose to live in a Soviet gulag instead of continuing to develop the power of death. “I wanted to alert the world,” Sakharov explained in 1968, “to the grave perils threatening the human race thermonuclear extinction, ecological catastrophe, famine.”
Even Igor Kurchatov, the KGB academician who headed the Soviet nuclear program from 1943 until his death in 1960, expressed deep qualms of conscience about helping to create weapons of mass destruction. “The rate of growth of atomic explosives is such,” he warned in an article written together with several other Soviet nuclear scientists not long before he died, “that in just a few years the stockpile will be large enough to create conditions under which the existence of life on earth will be impossible.”
That was a warning covering from 1943-1960, and on to 1968. What about today? Isn’t it safer because of all the disarmament? No, the world is in fare graver peril than when those words were spoken in 1968. And, in even more deadly danger since the fall of the Soviet Union.
Today we are in the greatest nuclear peril that has ever existed. We no longer have two nuclear armed superpowers with their own countries and interests to protect. We now have religious fanatics with everlasting hatred for Israel, America, Jews, and Christians—with the capability to launch and detonate atomic weapons at any time.
Here is the status of the current nuclear death-makers now stalking this planet:
- Today Russia has a more weapons, that are more powerful, more deployable, and more indefensible than at any time in the past
- Today China is busily building atomic weapons, and can launch missiles that can strike us here in the U.S.
- Today the cruel and murderous regime of North Korea, that has starved its own people to pay for weapons–has both nuclear warheads and missiles that could strike parts of the U.S. and Europe.
- Today the generations of hatred and hostility that has smoldered between Pakistan and India has come to the frightening climax as each side now has atomic tipped missiles that work, deployed against each others cities. Both have stated that an atomic weapon attack on an enemy is a winnable option. The world may witness the first nuclear war since the horrors of Hiroshima and the nightmares of Nagasaki sixty years ago.
- In months if not weeks, the bitterest enemy of Israel, the home of the dark prince of Persia—Iran, will possess the start of a growing arsenal of thermonuclear death and destruction to place at the top of their missiles. Their version of Islam considers “martyrdom in the cause of Allah” to be the ultimate act of faith.
To be involved in a nuclear exchange that insures a mutual destruction is an acceptable option to the Mad Mullahs of Tehran. Plus if Iran gets nuclear weapons, you can be sure that they will eagerly share them with other fanatical Muslim nations too.
Today, with nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons, it is possible to wipe out all flesh on planet earth. We talk about these instruments of death and destruction, we see pictures of them, magazines illustrate the effects of them—atomic powered weapons are common to our minds. They were not even dreamed of a century ago. But God’s Word anticipates the use of nuclear weapons.
Listen to the prophet who wrote his book of prophecies as he looked out over the burned out rubble of Nebuchadnezzar’s destruction of Jerusalem 2,500 years ago. Turn with me to Zechariah 14:1.
And this shall be the plague with which the Lord will strike all the people who fought against Jerusalem: Their flesh shall dissolve while they stand on their feet, Their eyes shall dissolve in their sockets, And their tongues shall dissolve in their mouths.
Atomic weapons melt (dissolves) its victims – just as Zechariah predicted 2500 years ago. It is widely believed and discussed at the California Institute of Technology that Israel has developed an even more lethal version of the neutron bomb, which in terms of destroying human beings is the ultimate weapon.
The enhanced neutron weapon can “absolutely demolish all protein-bearing living things in a predetermined area from one to 100 square miles without destroying buildings and terrain. It also would be preferred over nuclear and thermonuclear weapons because it does not leave the contamination of radio activity. In terms of the prophetic pattern, Israel is rapidly fitting into its final role. Zechariah predicted that all nations would be drawn into the final Great War which begins with a dispute between the Arabs and Israel over Jerusalem”. 
When the final siege of Jerusalem happens, the outcome will not be what the nations of the earth had planned. God says the destroyers of His people will be themselves destroyed. Now back up to Zechariah 12:2-3:
“Behold, I will make Jerusalem a cup of drunkenness to all the surrounding peoples, when they lay siege against Judah and Jerusalem. 3 And it shall happen in that day that I will make Jerusalem a very heavy stone for all peoples; all who would heave it away will surely be cut in pieces, though all nations of the earth are gathered against it.”
An even more ancient prophecy of this day comes from the pen of the Prophet Joel. Turn there with me to Joel 3 and listen to God describe this same event as all nations are drawn into war over Israel and their armies being destroyed there.
Joel 3:1-17 “For behold, in those days and at that time, When I bring back the captives of Judah and Jerusalem, 2 I will also gather all nations, And bring them down to the Valley of Jehoshaphat; And I will enter into judgment with them there On account of My people, My heritage Israel, Whom they have scattered among the nations; They have also divided up My land. 3 They have cast lots for My people, Have given a boy as payment for a harlot, And sold a girl for wine, that they may drink. 4 “Indeed, what have you to do with Me, O Tyre and Sidon, and all the coasts of Philistia? Will you retaliate against Me? But if you retaliate against Me, Swiftly and speedily I will return your retaliation upon your own head; 5 Because you have taken My silver and My gold, And have carried into your temples My prized possessions. 6 Also the people of Judah and the people of Jerusalem You have sold to the Greeks, That you may remove them far from their borders. 7 “Behold, I will raise them Out of the place to which you have sold them,
And will return your retaliation upon your own head. 8 I will sell your sons and your daughters Into the hand of the people of Judah, And they will sell them to the Sabeans, To a people far off; For the Lord has spoken.” 9 Proclaim this among the nations: “Prepare for war! Wake up the mighty men, Let all the men of war draw near, Let them come up. 10 Beat your plowshares into swords And your pruning hooks into spears; Let the weak say, ‘I am strong.’ ” 11 Assemble and come, all you nations, And gather together all around. Cause Your mighty ones to go down there, O Lord. 12 “Let the nations be wakened, and come up to the Valley of Jehoshaphat; For there I will sit to judge all the surrounding nations. 13 Put in the sickle, for the harvest is ripe. Come, go down; For the winepress is full, The vats overflow—For their wickedness is great.” 14 Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision! For the day of the Lord is near in the valley of decision. 15 The sun and moon will grow dark, And the stars will diminish their brightness. 16 The Lord also will roar from Zion, And utter His voice from Jerusalem; The heavens and earth will shake; But the Lord will be a shelter for His people, And the strength of the children of Israel. 17 “So you shall know that I am the Lord your God, Dwelling in Zion My holy mountain. Then Jerusalem shall be holy, And no aliens shall ever pass through her again.”
Joel’s words transport us into a bigger and more well known event that those who study the Bible have long seen. Joel is describing the last half of the Tribulation. This time period is so graphically captured through the lens of Scripture—that many just can’t believe it is true. It is the time that Ezekiel also saw and described with words that also sound so much like atomic warfare. Ezekiel seems to describe Russia and Moslem allies attacking Israel.
“You will come from your place out of the remote parts of the north, you and many peoples with you, all of them riding on horses, a great assembly and a mighty army; and you will come up against My people Israel like a cloud to cover the land. It shall come about in the last days that I will bring you against My land, so that the nations may know Me when I am sanctified through you before their eyes, O Gog … “I will call for a sword against him on all My mountains,” declares the Lord God. “Every man’s sword will be against his brother. With pestilence and with blood I will enter into judgment with him; and I will rain on him and on his troops, and on the many peoples who are with him, a torrential rain, with hailstones, fire and brimstone.” (Ezekiel 38:15-6, 21-22 NAS)
This is either God doing a supernatural job of defeating them (which He is well able to do) or it is an atomic exchange which can be reflected in Israel’s over 200 thermonuclear devices. When the Apostle John saw the same event (the great tribulation) listen to these chilling descriptions.
“And another, a red horse, went out; and to him who sat on it, it was granted to take peace from the earth, and that men would slay one another; and a GREAT SWORD was given to him … When the Lamb broke the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth living creature saying, ‘Come.’ I looked, and behold, an ashen horse; and he who sat on it had the name Death; and Hades was following with him. AUTHORITY WAS GIVEN TO THEM OVER A FOURTH OF THE EARTH, to kill with sword and with famine and with pestilence and by the wild beasts of the earth.” (Rev. 6:4, 7-8)
“I believe that the world is now set up for this final chapter before the Messiah comes and destroys this present world order and sets up God’s Kingdom. The real issue is – are you ready?”
So what is the long term effect upon humans exposed to the reality of living in a world overflowing with WMDs? HOPELESSNESS
God describes unsaved people as “without hope”.
Ephesians 2:12 that at that time you were without Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel and strangers from the covenants of promise, having no hope and without God in the world.
That is exactly what all of us were before Christ’s grace and mercy found us. Most people however live so fast and full lives that the reality of their hopelessness is often kept at a comfortable distance; held off by pleasures, pursuits, false hopes and many other tricks that Satan has devised to keep people from the truth.
And what is the Gospel we believe and share? Our hope!
Romans 8:24 For we were saved in this hope, but hope that is seen is not hope; for why does one still hope for what he sees?
Romans 12:12 rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation, continuing steadfastly in prayer;
Hebrews 6:19 This hope we have as an anchor of the soul, both sure and steadfast, and which enters the Presence behind the veil,
Hope in the Lord who alone can give you a future and a hope! Humans can live 40 days with no food, 3 days with no water, 8 minutes with no air—but humans can’t live a second without hope!
The Hebrew language of the Old Testament is a rich storehouse of words which define hope. There are four Hebrew words that give us valuable insights into the many way God can make us live in hope. Let’s examine these four types of hope God offers, and see how words written thousands of years ago leap right into the twenty-first century and our lives. Waiting hope, Trusting hope, Clinging hope, and Sheltering hope!
The first Hebrew word that God gives us is describing WAITING HOPE—the word is QAVAH (6960): HOPE THAT RENEWS EXHAUSTED STRENGTH. Turn with me to the most well known verse in the Bible using this special word. Isaiah 40:31.
The original idea of this verb was to twist or to stretch something. It was associated with the twisting and stretching of weak strands into a strong rope. From this the word metaphorically developed into the idea of enduring under tension. This concept sprung from the fact that even a weak thread twisted together with a rope became strong. The belief grew that as we hope in the Lord’s promises we are woven into His strength and strengthened to withstand the stresses of life.
A great promise given by Isaiah illustrates this word:
Isaiah 40:31 But those who wait on the Lord Shall renew their strength; They shall mount up with wings like eagles, They shall run and not be weary, They shall walk and not faint.
The word translated wait in Isaiah is qavah. The major shade of meaning in this is “waiting in the expectant HOPE and being strengthened thereby.” The margin note renders it “who HOPE in the Lord,” which is more accurate. A sure hope in the future enables a person to have superhuman strength:
Isaiah 40:29-31 He gives power to the weak, And to those who have no might He increases strength. 30 Even the youths shall faint and be weary, And the young men shall utterly fall, 31 But those who [HOPE in] the Lord Shall renew their strength; They shall mount up with wings like eagles, They shall run and not be weary, They shall walk and not faint.
This is exactly the same word and hope that the patriarch Jacob testified about at the end of his 147 year long life of troubles, stress, and disasters. Genesis 49:18 I have waited for your salvation, O Lord!
King David in writing the Psalms uses this word more frequently than any other biblical writer. This word actually was one of the keys to David’s life. He recognized that his human strength was never enough to meet the stresses of life. 
Psalm 25:3 Indeed, let no one who waits on You be ashamed; Let those be ashamed who deal treacherously without cause.
Psalm 25:5 Lead me in Your truth and teach me, For You are the God of my salvation; On You I wait all the day.
Psalm 25:21 Let integrity and uprightness preserve me, For I wait for You.
Psalm 27:14 Wait on the Lord; Be of good courage, And He shall strengthen your heart; Wait, I say, on the Lord!
Psalm 37:9, 34 For evildoers shall be cut off; But those who wait on the Lord, They shall inherit the earth. 34 Wait on the Lord, And keep His way, And He shall exalt you to inherit the land; When the wicked are cut off, you shall see it.
Psalm 39:7 “And now, Lord, what do I wait for? My hope is in You.
Psalm 40:1 I waited patiently for the Lord; And He inclined to me, And heard my cry.
Psalm 130:5 I wait for the Lord, my soul waits, And in His word I do hope (yachal #3176).
Lamentations 3:25 The Lord is good to those who wait for Him, To the soul who seeks Him.
The second Hebrew word that God gives us is describing TRUSTING HOPE–the word is YACHAL (3176): HOPE THAT PRODUCES GREAT ENDURANCE. Turn with me to the most well known verse in the Bible using this special word. Job 13:15.
The root idea of this word is to wait for something. It came to mean an expectant waiting under extreme pressure. The scholar R. B. Girdlestone says, “Yachal occurs several times in the Book of Job and signifies a long patient waiting.” A study of the usage of this word in the Book of Job gives the most accurate connotations. Job was a man going through extreme trial: he lost his great wealth, all his children, and his health-in rapid succession. He was suffering incredible and constant physical and mental pain. Yet as he thought of why God had permitted all this he says,
Job 13:15 Though He slay me, yet will I trust Him. Even so, I will defend my own ways before Him. [Here the word yachal means to keep on hoping with endurance under extreme pressure. Job’s hope in the Lord enabled him to endure and be stabilized even under adverse conditions. ]
Job 14:14 If a man dies, shall he live again? All the days of my hard service I will wait, Till my change comes.
Genesis 8:12 So he waited yet another seven days and sent out the dove, which did not return again to him anymore.
Psalm 31:24 Be of good courage, And He shall strengthen your heart, All you who hope in the Lord.
Psalm 33:18, 22 Behold, the eye of the Lord is on those who fear Him, On those who hope in His mercy, 22 Let Your mercy, O Lord, be upon us, Just as we hope in You.
Psalm 38:15 For in You, O Lord, I hope; You will hear, O Lord my God.
Psalm 42:5, 11; 43:5 Why are you cast down, O my soul? And why are you disquieted within me? Hope in God, for I shall yet praise Him For the help of His countenance. 11 Why are you cast down, O my soul? And why are you disquieted within me? Hope in God; For I shall yet praise Him, The help of my countenance and my God. 5 Why are you cast down, O my soul? And why are you disquieted within me? Hope in God; For I shall yet praise Him, The help of my countenance and my God.
Psalm 71:14 But I will hope continually, And will praise You yet more and more.
Psalm 119:43 And take not the word of truth utterly out of my mouth, For I have hoped in Your ordinances. 49 Remember the word to Your servant, Upon which You have caused me to hope.
Psalm 119:74 Those who fear You will be glad when they see me, Because I have hoped in Your word. 81 My soul faints for Your salvation, But I hope in Your word. 114 You are my hiding place and my shield; I hope in Your word. 147 I rise before the dawning of the morning, And cry for help; I hope in Your word.
Lamentations 3:21, 24 This I recall to my mind, Therefore I have hope. 22 Through the Lord’s mercies we are not consumed, Because His compassions fail not. 23 They are new every morning; Great is Your faithfulness. 24 “The Lord is my portion,” says my soul, “Therefore I hope in Him!”
The third Hebrew word that God gives us is describing CLINGING HOPE–the word is BATACH (982): HOPE THAT INSPIRES DEEPER TRUST. Turn with me to the most well known verse in the Bible using this special word. Proverbs 3:5.
Proverbs 3:5 Trust [literally cling to] the Lord with all your heart, And lean not on your own understanding;
Here batach is used in the sense of hope that comes from casting one’s total future upon God as a little child and trusting Him for everything. This word is most often translated to trust or to have confidence in someone-usually God. But in some contexts it is definitely used to mean hope, as in the great prophetic Twenty-second Psalm. The Messiah’s thoughts while suffering on the cross are predicted here:
“But thou [God] art he that took me out of the womb: thou didst make me HOPE [batach] when I was upon my mother’s breasts” (Psalms 22:9 KJV).
Psalm 37:3-5 Trust in the Lord, and do good; Dwell in the land, and feed on His faithfulness. 4 Delight yourself also in the Lord, And He shall give you the desires of your heart. 5 Commit your way to the Lord, Trust also in Him, And He shall bring it to pass.
Psalm 40:3 He has put a new song in my mouth—Praise to our God; Many will see it and fear, And will trust [cling to] the Lord.
Psalm 56:3-4, 11Whenever I am afraid, I will trust [cling to] You. 4 In God (I will praise His word), In God I have put my trust; I will not fear. What can flesh do to me. 11 In God I have put my trust; I will not be afraid. What can man do to me?
Psalm 112:7 He will not be afraid of evil tidings; His heart is steadfast, trusting [clinging to] the Lord.
The final of the four Hebrew words for hope that God gives us is describing SHELTERING HOPE–the word is CHASAH (2620): HOPE THAT OFFERS SECURE REFUGE. Turn with me to the most well known verse in the Bible using this special word. Ruth 2:12.
Ruth 2:12 The Lord repay your work, and a full reward be given you by the Lord God of Israel, under whose wings you have come for refuge.”
This is a beautiful word for hope. Its root meaning is “to seek shelter, refuge or protection in something or someone.” It is used frequently to portray little animals taking refuge in the cleft of a rock as in Psalm 104:18 The high hills are for the wild goats; The cliffs are a refuge for the rock badgers.
Figuratively it came to be used of man’s taking refuge in God from the spiritual, emotional, and physical dangers of life. On a few occasions this concept is translated HOPE. In Proverbs 14:32 this is used in a unique way: “The wicked is driven away in his wickedness: but the righteous hath hope in his death” ( KJV ).When the one who has been declared righteous by believing in Jesus as his Savior faces death, he will have a hope that is a refuge from the uncertainty and fear presented by his own death. 
2 Samuel 22:3, 31 The God of my strength, in whom I will trust; My shield and the horn of my salvation, My stronghold and my refuge; My Savior, You save me from violence. 31 As for God, His way is perfect; The word of the Lord is proven; He is a shield to all who trust in Him.
Psalm 7:1 O Lord my God, in You I put my trust; Save me from all those who persecute me; And deliver me,
Psalm 11:1 In the Lord I put my trust; How can you say to my soul,
“Flee as a bird to your mountain”?
Psalm 16:1 Preserve me, O God, for in You I put my trust.
Psalm 31:1 In You, O Lord, I put my trust; Let me never be ashamed;
Deliver me in Your righteousness.
Psalm 57:1 Be merciful to me, O God, be merciful to me! For my soul trusts in You; And in the shadow of Your wings I will make my refuge, Until these calamities have passed by.
Psalm 71:1 In You, O Lord, I put my trust; Let me never be put to shame.
Psalm 91:4 He shall cover you with His feathers, And under His wings you shall take refuge; His truth shall be your shield and buckler.
Proverbs 30:5 Every word of God is pure; He is a shield to those who put their trust in Him.
 Hal Lindsey, The Terminal Generation. Old Tappan, New Jersey: Fleming H. Revell Company: 1976, p. 56.
 Hal Lindsey, Oracle Commentaries, 3/3/2005,
Peril of Forgetting.
 Hal Lindsey, The Terminal Generation. Old Tappan, New Jersey: Fleming H. Revell Company: 1976, p. 92-93.
 Robert Baker Girdlestone, Synonyms of the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1948), p. 104.
 Hal Lindsey, The Terminal Generation. Old Tappan, New Jersey: Fleming H. Revell Company: 1976, p. 92-93.
 Hal Lindsey, The Terminal Generation. Old Tappan, New Jersey: Fleming H. Revell Company: 1976, p. 95.
 Brown, Driver, and Briggs, p. 875.
 Hal Lindsey, The Terminal Generation. Old Tappan, New Jersey: Fleming H. Revell Company: 1976, p. 97-98.